COMBUSTION AND PLASMA CHEMISTRY <p>QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL ON COMBUSTION AND EXPLOSION AT THE PRESIDIUM OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND THE INSTITUTE OF COMBUSTION PROBLEMS<br>The journal "Combustion and Plasma Chemistry" publishes original scientific articles based on experimental and theoretical research on combustion and plasma chemistry, technology of explosives and pyrotechnic materials, chemical physics, materials science.</p> RSE "Institute of Combustion Problems" of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan en-US COMBUSTION AND PLASMA CHEMISTRY 1683-3902 PLASMA ТECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT FOR MEDICAL WASTE PROCESSING <p>In the technology of processing medical waste, including waste generated during a pandemic, the main generally accepted methods are thermal, using fuel or plasma furnaces, for combustion in an oxygen-containing environment or for pyrolysis in a reducing atmosphere to produce synthesis gas (H<sub>2 </sub>and CO) that can be further used for the chemical industry or as a fuel. Moreover, direct combustion or pyrolysis of the initial solid waste, which ensures the gasification of its organic components, is usually only the first stage of the general technological process. In general, it consists of three stages. At the second stage, the gas products of the first stage are brought to a predetermined composition, at the third stage, the inorganic residue is neutralized - ash, the formation of which is up to 20% of unsorted medical waste. A promising option for the technology under consideration is the use of electric arc plasma installations. Compared to non-plasma furnaces, even those using intensive gas-dynamic operating modes, a number of significant advantages are achieved: a decrease in the volume of the furnace (while maintaining the productivity of raw materials) and a decrease in the volume of exhaust gases by about an order of magnitude with an increase in temperature in the reaction zone of the furnace to 2000–2300 °C.</p> A. Mosse G. Paskalov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 5 10 10.18321/cpc477 PLASMA TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROBLEM OF OBTAINING «MORE THAN GREEN HYDROGEN» <p>Among the fire methods of various carbonaceous wastes processing, the most common are currently high-temperature technologies for their gasification with the production of hydrogen in gasification products. In terms of the prospects for decarbonization of sectors of the economy, the use of such technologies is carbon-negative, because otherwise waste will rot in landfills and emit methane for 20 years – a greenhouse gas that is 20 times more active than carbon dioxide in terms of climate change. Thus, the carbon contribution is defined as negative in the equivalent of 188 kg of carbon dioxide per MJ compared to 20 kg for hydrogen obtained from carbon and zero for standard green hydrogen. This allowed the authors of some developments to classify the hydrogen obtained from waste as greener than green. The prospects of application of plasma technologies for hydrogen production in relation to the tasks of hydrogen energy in terms of their energy efficiency are discussed on the examples of gasification of sewage sludges and rubber crumbs of worn tires. The analysis of existing empirical dependences for determination of thermophysical characteristics of a wide range of combustible substances is carried out and the most acceptable of them for those types of carbonaceous raw materials which were subjected to gasification in the present work are selected.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> V. Zhovtyansky M. Ostapchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 11 32 10.18321/cpc478 A POSSIBLE OPTION TO INCREASE THE REPRESENTATIVENESS OF THE TARIFF FOR THE PRODUCTS OF NATURAL MONOPOLIES <p>The article considers the option of increasing the representativeness of tariffs, through the allocation of a part related to ensuring the readiness of an object for operation and a part due to the cost of producing the required volume of products (services), It is also shown that the use of the reduced value of losses per unit (of surface or per unit of length) is more consistent with the process of product losses during delivery to the Consumer. A variant of determining the cost of heat and electrical energy in their joint production (cogeneration), which improves their reliability, is considered.</p> B.K. Aliyarov R.A. Alshanov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 33 39 10.18321/cpc479 SOOT FORMATION DURING THE COMBUSTION OF HYDROCARBONS IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD <p>In this mini review, dedicated to the 75<sup>th</sup> anniversary of a prominent scientist in the field of plasma chemistry, Professor Vladimir Efremovich Messerle, soot formation during the combustion of hydrocarbons in an electric field is considered. This is a historical excursus of research on the combustion of hydrocarbons in an electric field.</p> Z.A. Mansurov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 41 50 10.18321/cpc480 PLASMA-FUEL SYSTEMS AND PRINCIPLES OF THEIR FUNCTIONING <p>This article presents the main types of plasma-fuel systems and the principles of their operation, which provide environmental and economic benefits compared to traditional fuel-use technologies. In plasma-fuel systems, coal of any quality is upgraded before it is burned. In general, a plasma-fuel system is a fuel device (a device into which fuel is supplied) with a plasma source. In plasma-fuel systems, the processes of plasma preparation and/or processing of solid fuels are carried out. The basic principle of the operation of plasma-fuel systems is the organization of electrothermochemical preparation and/or processing of coal dust in electric arc plasma. The use of plasma-fuel systems makes it possible to expand the range of coals burned in the same boiler and, ultimately, reduce the sensitivity of pulverized coal boilers to fuel quality. It is shown that an important advantage of the plasma technology is the quick payback and low cost of its implementation, while reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur and vanadium pentoxide and fuel burnout during plasma stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. This makes them practically the only real means of improving the environmental and economic efficiency of using solid fuels and replacing scarce and expensive fuel oil in the fuel balance of TPPs in the required volumes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O.A. Lavrichshev A.B. Ustimenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 51 62 10.18321/cpc481 NUMERICAL MODELING OF TEMPERATURE PLUME FORMATION OF NON-ISOTHERMAL LIQUID INJECTIONS <p>This paper presents the results of computational experiments to study the formation of a spray and a temperature plume of non-isothermal liquid injections under high turbulence. Numerical modeling of atomization and combustion of liquid fuel injections and the influence of the initial gas temperature in the combustion chamber on these processes has been carried out. The temperature in the combustion chamber varied from 700 K to 1500 K for two types of liquid fuels: octane and dodecane. The distributions of liquid fuel droplets along the radii and temperature at various points in time are constructed. The influence of the initial temperature on the concentration characteristics of various types of fuel is revealed. As a result, it was found that at a pressure of over 80 bar with high turbulence, the gas temperature equal to 900 K was taken as optimal. At this temperature, the chamber is heated to high temperatures and the concentration of the resulting reaction products is the lowest. The obtained results can be applied in the construction of the liquid fuels’ combustion theory and will contribute to a deeper understanding of the complex physical and chemical phenomena that occur in combustion chambers.</p> S.A. Bolegenova A.S. Askarova Sh.S. Ospanova A.N. Aldiyarova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 63 72 10.18321/cpc482 KINETIC CALCULATION OF PLASMA-AIR AND PLASMA-STEAM GASIFICATION OF SOLID FUELS <p>In this paper, kinetic calculation of kuchekinsky coal plasma-air and plasma-steam gasification in a cylindrical channels with plasma source is performed. For kinetic calculations one-dimensional kinetic code Plasma-Coal were applied. Calculation results showed that gas phase in plasma-air gasification products, starting from the coordinate value of 0.15 m, is mainly represented by synthesis gas, concentration of which at reactor outlet is 48.6%. At the same time, the concentration of carbon monoxide over the entire temperature range is higher than the concentration of hydrogen. Their concentration at reactor outlet is 31.2% and 17.5%, respectively. Gas phase of plasma-steam gasification products is also represented mainly by synthesis gas. At 0.15 m reactor length, synthesis gas concentration is 93.9%, and reached up to 100% at reactor outlet.</p> K.A. Umbetkaliev A.B. Ustimenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 20 1 73 81 10.18321/cpc483 THE CLEAN COMBUSTION OF SOLID FUEL USING A PLASMA-COAL BURNER <p>Solid fuels have a great chance to take a leading position in the energy market in the future from an environmental and energy point of view. The development of science and technology makes it possible to use coal with minimal harmful emissions. Also, looking at a sufficient supply for the coming years can preserve the energy balance around the world. This type of solid fuel is the primary source of thermal power plants and can maintain a long-term stable price. To burn low-reactive fuels (coal), highly reactive fuels (fuel oil or natural gas) are used, leading to various environmental and economic costs, climate change, and polluting the environment by providing initiatives to find alternatives to clean-burning minimal financial outlay. One of the promising technologies presented at various international exhibitions and widely used in some countries is plasma technology. Burners running on fuel oil or gas are replaced by a plasma-coal burner, which gives low-temperature plasma using a plasma torch. The temperature of the plasma-air torch at the outlet of the plasma torch in conventional plasma burners can reach 5000 K, which allows you to destroy harmful substances in your area.</p> M.N. Оrynbasar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-02-21 2022-02-21 20 1 83 91 10.18321/cpc484